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Teratology Teratogen Teratoma
Engraved before 1811 from an original in the then Museum Pio Clemens in Rome (Click for details)
Esculapius (Medicine) between Mercury (Merchants) and the Graces (Medicine, Hygiene and Panacea)
Esculapius dealt with Patients - Merchants make deals with Clients


~ TERATO~  prefix

           id+ | WONDER |

           id+ | EXPRESSION OF DIVINE POWER |

     note IMBUED WITH RELIGIONS IMPLICATIONS

          gr TERAS    or

             TERATOS  for "DEFORMITY" thus

~ TERATOGEN  id+ | AN AGENT CAPABLE OF ALTERING

                   NORMAL PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT |

~ TERATOMA  med> TERATO and OMA = TUMOR  to denote

                 A NEOPLASM WHICH FROM A MIXTURE OF

     TISSUES AND STRUCTURES NOT NATIVE TO THE SITE

     AND DERIVED FROM ALL THREE EMBRYONIC LAYERS

               ENDODERM or ENTODERM  ECTODERM and MESODERM

~ TERATOGEN    id+  | A SAME SINGLE AGENT CAN BE

                      TERATOGENIC

                      MUTAGENIC and

                      CARCINOGENIC

~ TERATOGENIC  id+ | WONDER  PORTENT |

               gr GENNAN = ENGENDER PRODUCING

~ TERATOLOGY   med> SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE FOCUSED ON THE

                    STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC

               CAUSES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS

                  see> BIRTH DEFECT

~ TERATOTHANASIA  gr   THANATOS = DEATH MORTAL

                  hx>  IDEA COINED by see> Josef WARKANY [#]

                  id+  | NATURAL or SPONTANEOUS PROCESS

                         ENDING IN ABORTION |

  note TERATOGENS

       NAME FOR AGENTS THAT CAN INDUCE

  MALFORMATIONS and in BROADER TERMS

  ANY ANOMALIES IN THE DEVELOPING EMBRYO or FETUS

  from DEATH      see> TERATOTHANASIA

  to "MILD" FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS like

  LEARNING DISABILITIES

  see> BIRTH DEFECT

  examples of common teratogens include

  see> ALCOHOL  more below

  see> THALIDOMIDE

  see> RADIATION           see> X- RAYS

  see> METHYLMERCURY       see> MERCURY

  hx> THE ABOVE WAS A COMPONENT OF TEETHING POWDERS

      A PIONEER OF SCIENTIFIC TERATOLOGY  see> WARKANY

  SHOWED THAT MERCURY WAS THE CAUSE OF

  see> ACRODYNIA

  see> MINAMATA

  see> POLLUTION

  see> ECOLOGY

  med> NEARLY 20% OF HUMAN PREGNANCIES END IN RECOGNIZED

       MISCARRIAGES  MANY MORE END IN UNRECOGNIZED ABORTIONS

  hx>  THE IDEA THAT THE FETUS COULD BE MALFORMED BY

       ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS WAS REJECTED FOR CENTURIES

  IN 1961 WHEN "CONTERGAN"            see> THALIDOMIDE

  WAS VIGOROUSLY MARKETED IN GERMANY ENGLAND AND JAPAN

  AN EPIDEMIC OF MALFORMED INFANTS FOLLOWED

  STUDIES SHOWED THAT THALIDOMIDE COULD BE LETHAL OR

  CAUSE SEVERE MALFORMATIONS IN THE UNBORN

  IN THE USA CIRCUMSTANCES DELAYED THE FDA APPROVAL FOR

  THALIDOMIDE AND NO EPIDEMIC WAS NOTED

  THESE EVENTS DESTROYED THE DOGMA THAT THE UTERUS WAS

  A "SACRO SANCTORUM" IN WHICH THE FETUS WAS SAFE FROM

  ENVIRONMENTAL HARM  THIS DOGMA PROVIDED THE RATIONAL

  FOR OTHER "LOGICAL" IDEAS HOLDING THAT BIRTH DEFECTS

  WERE "GENETIC" AND REFLECTED PARENTAL "FLAWS" WHICH

  PROVIDED THE SUPPORT AND POLITICAL WILL FOR

  SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INTERVENTION

  ENTHUSIASTIC SCIENTISTS AND SOME GENETICISTS ADAPTED

  "RACIAL" PRECONCEPTIONS INTO LEGISLATION AND POLICIES

  ENFORCED BY THE GOVERNMENTS OF CIVILIZED NATIONS

  INCLUDING  GERMANY USSR ENGLAND USA     see> EUGENICS

  note IN THE USA STERILIZATION OF THE "RETARDED" WAS

       IMPLEMENTED UNTIL RECENT TIMES

  EXAGGERATED SOCIAL APPLICATIONS OF INCOMPLETE AND ERRONEOUS

  INTERPRETATIONS OF CAUSES OF BIRTH DEFECTS DIMINISHED THE

  SOCIAL STANDING OF THE SCIENCE OF GENETICS

  note WHEN PARENTS OF DEFORMED OR MALFORMED CHILDREN

       ARE NOT GIVEN ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC OR

  RATIONAL REASONS THE VACUUM IS FILLED BY ALTERNATIVE

  EXPLANATIONS AND FEELINGS OF GUILT  PANIC etc

  note GENETIC COUNSELING CONCERNING MALFORMED CHILDREN IS OF

       LIMITED VALUE UNLESS PARENTAL IDEAS AND IDEATIONS

  CAN BE GRASPED UNDERSTOOD AND AMELIORATED

  note WHILE EMBRYONAL or FETAL EXPOSURE TO THALIDOMIDE

       VIRTUALY INDUCES ANOMALIES IN 100% OF INSTANCES

  EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL INDUCES PROBLEMS SELECTIVELY AND

  OF DIVERSE SEVERITY

  note FAS or FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME and

       FAE for FETAL ALCOHOL EFFECTS

  note THE MAJOR SIGNS OF FAS and FAE include

  GROWTH FAILURE BEFORE AND AFTER BIRTH

  DEVELOPMENTAL FAILURES PARTICULARLY OF THE

  CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM different in the

  first trimester notable are

  MALFORMATION as in CORPUS CALLOSUM DEFECTS

  second trimester NERVE DEFETS

  third trimester  ALTER NEUROLAL CONNECTIONS and

                   KILL NEURONES  as in

  FRONTAL LOBE     sug> MICROCEPHALY

  note MENTAL SUBNORMALITY and

       MICROCEPHALY or

  SMALL CEPHALON or HEAD are major malformations

  as are STRUCTURAL DEFECTS OF THE HEART

  see> LYSENKO  see> LENZ  see> MULLER  see> WARKANY

  see> GE  see> GEA  see> GENIUS  see> GENETIC  see> EUGENICS

  see> MONSTER

  cont> in addenda under development see> WARKANY
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